Monday, October 24, 2011

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Dolores Ibárruri was born to a local Basque miner and a Castillian mother. She grew up in Gallarta, but upon her marriage to the revolutionary socialist miner Julián Ruiz Gabiña, Ibárruri moved to Somorrosto (Biscay). It was here, during the 1920s, that the once Carlist Catholic young woman became a revolutionary militant activist and one of the first members of the Spanish Communist Party (PCE) when it was founded in 1921. In the 1930s, she became a writer for the PCE publication Mundo Obrero, and was elected to the Cortes as a PCE deputy for Asturias in February 1936 during the Second Republic. After the end of the Spanish Civil War and her exile from Spain, she was appointed General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Spain, a position she held from 1942 to 1960, when she was made honorary president of the PCE, a post she held for the rest of her life. Upon her return to Spain in 1977, she was reelected as a deputy to the Cortes for the same region she had once represented during the Second Republic. She is usually regarded as being one of the greatest public speakers of the twentieth century.
She was born as the daughter of a poor Carlist miner's family in the Basque town of Gallarta, the eighth of eleven children. Gallarta was located next to a large siderite mine which became the second most important in Europe during the 1970s and which was shut down permanently in 1993.
Her autobiography recounts that she was sent to the municipal school as soon as she could talk. School was a dark, cold, dank old house not in the least bit attractive; the curriculum was basic and mainly religious; discipline was harsh. Outside she and the other children sang revolutionary ditties, played pranks and took part in rival gang fights. A self-willed child, she was taken at the age of ten by her mother to the Church of San Felicisimo in Deusto to be exorcized; the mother must have been pressed into taking this dramatic step by her daughter's pert theological arguments.

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Sometimes my small brothers and I engaged my mother in enlightening dialogue. One of us would ask the mother: "Is it true that we are all sons of God?" "It's true." "Are we all brothers?" "All!" "Then if we are the brothers of so and so—mentioning the well-off people in town—why does Dad have to go to work everyday, even when it rains, while the slickers do not work and are better off than we are?" Here the theological reach of my mother eluded her grasp and she would retort full of anger, "Keep quiet! Children musn't ask such things!"

*Digital captions in English


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Ibárruri left school at the age of fifteen after spending two years preparing for teacher's college thanks to the encouragement and guidance of the new schoolmistress. However her parents could not afford the cost of further education so instead she went to work as a seamstress and later as a housemaid. Afterward she became a waitress in a cafeteria in the town of Arboleda (the most important urban nucleus in the region of Somorrostro) where she met Julián Ruiz Gabiña, union activist and founder of Socialist Youth of Somorrostro whom she married in late 1915, two years after the birth of their first child. The following year the young couple participated in the general strike of 1917 and Ruiz went to jail again. During this time Ibárruri started to read the works of Karl Marx and others found in the library of the Socialist Workers' Centre in Somorrostro; she studied at night.
Ibárruri wrote her first article in 1918 for the miners' newspaper, El Minero Vizcaíno. The article came out during Holy Week, it versed on religious hypocrisy at odds with the Passion of Christ, and because of the theme and because of the holiday she signed it with the alias "Pasionaria."

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In 1920 Ibárruri and the Workers' Centre joined the budding Communist Party of Spain (PCE) and she was named member of the Provincial Committee of the Basque Communist Party. The next ten years were years of tough grassroots militancy, in recognition for which she was in 1930 appointed to the Central Committee of the PCE. During this time Ibárruri had six children, five daughters and a son. Four girls died very early—"she (Ibárruri) used to relate how her husband made a small coffin out of a crate of fruit." The son Reuben (in Spanish, Rubén) died when he was twenty-two years old in the Battle of Stalingrad. Only one of the triplets named Amaya outlived the mother and in 2008 was residing in the working-class neighbourhood of Ciudad Lineal in Madrid. With the advent of the Second Republic in 1931 Ibárruri moved to Madrid where she eventually became the editor of the PCE newspaper Mundo Obrero. She was arrested for the first time in September 1931 and jailed with common offenders; she persuaded them to go on hunger strike to obtain the freedom of political detainees. Following a second arrest (March 1932—January 1933; several prison transfers: Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao, Oviedo) she led other inmates into singing the Internationale in the visits room and in the prison yard, incited them to turn down miserably paid menial labour and wrote two articles from jail, one article was published in November 1932 by the PCE periodical Frente Rojo and the other was published in December 1932 by Mundo Obrero.

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